CAS, Simple Rules, Agents, Simplicity, Complexity, Water
Complex adaptive systems (CASs) are composed of agents following local simple rules leading to collective dynamics that yield emergent properties. For example, when five sextillion atoms of hydrogen and oxygen (agents) follow the simple rule (two hydrogen atoms connect one oxygen atom), the resulting emergent property is what we know as water.
The best source to get a better understanding of CAS and Systems Thinking is in the book:📘Cabrera, D. & Cabrera, L. (2018) Systems Thinking Made Simple: New Hope for Solving Wicked Problems in a Complex World [2nd edition]. Plectica Publications. Ithaca, NY.