CAS, Simple Rules, Agents, Simplicity, Complexity, Color
The complex adaptive systems (CASs) are composed of agents following local simple rules leading to collective dynamics that yield emergent properties. For example, when four basic colors (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) follow simple rules (mixing and patterning), the emergent property is beautiful paintings or pictures - a complexity of myriads colors.
The best source to get a better understanding of CAS and Systems Thinking is in the book:📘Cabrera, D. & Cabrera, L. (2018) Systems Thinking Made Simple: New Hope for Solving Wicked Problems in a Complex World [2nd edition]. Plectica Publications. Ithaca, NY.